Final Summary

First of all, I think this class was one of the most interesting so far in my college career because as a Forensic Psych major. Getting to learn and now so much about how human brain works and think it’s extremely important and I can’t wait to learn more specifically bout these topics.

In detail, one of the argument that captured my attention the most was perception. I always had a sort of passion that made me want to analyze feelings and impression people get from the environment or from other kinds of interactions. What really fascinated me is the difference ad at the same time the coexistence of bottom-up and top-down processes. While the first one refers to our ability to detect the edges and shape of what we are watching and than conclude assigning a name or definition to the object. Top-down processes happen when we already have expectations of what we are going to see so we process the information to confirm the previous thoughts.

These two processes take place independently and a  two different level of processing, a lower one for bottom-up and a hi her one for top-down. What is sad about it is that some people affected by visual agnosia are sometimes not able to associate two similar objects (apperceptive agnosia) or they are able to draw the outline of the object but not able to name it (associative agnosia).

Another very interesting topic was Cognitive Development because I think ti’s really important to understand how we develop and our ability to adapt to and interact with the environment. Very important features in Piaget research are the schemas of Assimilation and Accommodation. While the first describes the assimilation of external stimuli and the formation of new definition and structures, the second one, accommodation, refers to the human’s ability to adapt to new stimuli and experiences.


Deductive Reasoning


I saw this picture and I thought it was really fun. This is how deductive reasoning works and in particular syllogistic reasoning. I find this topic really fascinating because when we think about it at first we might think it always works or at least most of the time. In this case even though both premises are true- penguins are black and white as well as old TV shows- we immediately realize that they not always lead to valid conclusions.

Giulia 🙂

A bit of History about sylliogism


When we were talking about reasoning I remembered of the famous Philosopher Aristotle. I found this website that explains most of his thoughts and reasoning and in particular the way syllogism works. Here is the introduction to the link

3. The Subject of Logic: “Syllogisms”

All Aristotle’s logic revolves around one notion: the deduction (sullogismos). A thorough explanation of what a deduction is, and what they are composed of, will necessarily lead us through the whole of his theory. What, then, is a deduction? Aristotle says:

A deduction is speech (logos) in which, certain things having been supposed, something different from those supposed results of necessity because of their being so. (Prior Analytics I.2, 24b18–20)

Each of the “things supposed” is a premise (protasis) of the argument, and what “results of necessity” is the conclusion (sumperasma).

The core of this definition is the notion of “resulting of necessity” (ex anankês sumbainein). This corresponds to a modern notion of logical consequence: X results of necessity from Y and Z if it would be impossible for X to be false when Y and Z are true. We could therefore take this to be a general definition of “valid argument”.

I hope this help clarify and have a better understanding of the topic!

Giulia 🙂

Grammar is important!


Hey! I know I often post pictures but I find them really funny and easy to understand. So many times when i talk to my friends or even when I read “Facebook Status Update”, I realize how many people misspell words or just use them incorrectly even though they know the right ones.

I think that the society shapes us and changes our common and informal language to make it more communicative and immediate. When we read advertisings that manipulate words or use them in the wrong way, we get use to it and start to use some of those sentences in our speaking as well.

Anyway, I often find myself in a situation similar to the one in the picture both in English and my native language, Italian. So many times people use verbs the in wrong way, and I can still not understand why!

I hope you liked the post,


Visual Thinking Matters


Hey! I found this funny and simple image that represents how Dual Coding works. We are used to acquire information by listening, but picturing images in our head would make everything easier because it stimulaters the visual coding system.

Furthermore we have learned that creating an image in our memory develops more links as well as nodes that interact.

Personally when I study for a test, I try to always use the pictures form the book or to draw schemas that make it easier to remember especially if connected to words definitions or important concepts that I need to remember.

Giulia 🙂