Piaget’s Pre-operational Stage.

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development stages consisted of four stages. The first was the Sensory Motor Stage,  birth-2 years. The pre-operational Stage,  2-7 years old. Children aged around 7-12 go through the Concrete Operational stage, and adolescents go through the Formal Operations Stage, from 11-16 perhaps till adult. In the video above the child is in the pre-operational stage, she’s not able to reason at her max, conservation isn’t acquired from the ages 2-7. Children during the pre-operational state only perceive things accordingly to how things appear, they don’t rationalize when making make decisions..


Price Anchoring..

price-anchoring-2This image demonstrates how marketers try to get you to buy their products. They accommodate every price to your convenience. Notice how the free offer compared to the $14.95 offer has about 50% percent or more of least features. Also notice how the pricing looks better because it’s not $15.00.

Heuristics Affects


I found this interesting image because a lot of people eat and drink certain things because of a “just because”. Example, some people can say they drink their coffee or tea with Stevia sugar because it comes from a plant, a herb. Therefore plants are natural. That excuse would be like saying it’s okay to eat other plants besides vegetables including, Toxicodendron radicans (Poisen Ivy, oaks, etc.)! I’m not saying that you have to be illiterate to do such a thing but this is what the comment sounds like. If something is natural it doesn’t necessarily mean it’s good for you. Stevia has no physical sign of danger just like poison Ivy. However, the only thing we know is that if we touch the Ivy we get a rash. Well the same applies to everything in life just because it doesn’t look dangerous and you think it’s good or other people tell you it is think again before you try it. Heuristic can lead to shallow thinking and making harmful decisions.

Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning permits a conclusion to be false. An example would be; Mary is a grandmother. Mary has gray hair. All grandmothers have gray hair. This is an example of inductive reasoning, a person is stating things in a specific point and having a general conclusion that may be bias or false.


Final Summary: Batsu JapaInese Game Show (Counting by 10’s in English)

This video is an example of how different cultures count numbers. What’s being demonstrated is a game show called “Batsu”. They speak and count in english, while not laughing at the person whose turn it is to speak or count.

The whole idea of the game is for the participants in the game not to laugh. As in the old MTV game show “Silent Library”. In “Silent Library” the participants are penalized for laughing in other ways and aren’t suppose to take the prank personal, likewise in “Batsu”. This type of game show is categorized as physical humor.

In my opinion, they are both brutal. However, I think that “Batsu” is arbitrary; If you google search “Japanese Batsu Games” you’ll see that there os a higher level of brutality and the objective that people laugh at someone getting spanked or hurt is what makes it battier. Anyone’s cultural way of counting can be strange to someone who doesn’t know about the culture. The participant counts in 10’s after the number 20: 30 would be, ten, ten, ten. When he says “ten, ten, ten, ten, ect..”  and his reactions when he is reading is what makes the game humorous.

With this lecture I have learned that there are many varieties of things that we can apply to psychology and research deeper into what some may or may not consider abstract but a reality and interesting things about the world around us. Below I posted videos of “Silent Library” in the original Japanese and the American format, if anyone hasn’t viewed and that would like more insight of different cultures or the game.

Japanese format:

American format: