This is an article that shows how psychopaths have different brain structure then “normal people”. A experiment was conducted showing that psychopaths have less grey matter in the anterior rostral prefrontal cortex and temporal poles
the link to the article is below
In Cognitive Psychology over the semester we learned how people acquire, transform, use communication through information stored in the Brain. In learning how our Brains function we learn how the Brain is constructed, and how information is stored. A concept I found interesting was the Brains “Plasticity” and how it is able to change, and reorganize itself after damage or build new pathways for information to be stored. It shows how the Brain is resilient, and able to fix itself depending on the type of damage that occurs to it. Functional changes occur in the brain, when new information is stored or memorized. Cells such as neurons, glia, and vascular cells are included in Neuro-Plasticity. Another concept I found important in memory was Retrieval Cues which are things that often help trigger us too recognize and recall stored information. “Retrieval cues” can be such things as someone smelling a pie being baked and it reminds them of their Grandmother’s house. In Long-term memory “Explicit” and “Implicit” memories are the two key concepts. In Explicit Memories our memories are consciously encoded, and remembered. While in Implicit Memories are not deliberate or consciously encoded but show previous learning and storage. In “Bottom-up Processing” a person begins with small pieces of information acquired from the environment, and by combining them in various ways they form a perception of something. A persons first response would be them seeing a plate of food, and the content in that plate begin to make their mouth water. This reactions lead to emotion of want, and hunger in the brain resulting in them asking for a plate. In “Top Down Processing” we make meaning of the stimuli by perceiving it, and our expectations of it. I believe memory to be very important in my everyday life, whether it be remembering the route to work, or studying for a test, and recalling important events in my own life. The Brain is important in allowing us to store information, function, and communicate daily. In understanding and valuing these concepts we become better aware of how we function daily.
This article describes how people are built with certain skills yet lack others skills, and this has nothing to do with “general intelligence”. Then it describes how Dr. Howard Gardner provided a new theory that went against the old ways of cognitive science, and education. Gardner theory is that there are eight different kinds of intelligence, proving each person is unique. Then it lists the eight intelligences which are spatial, bodily- kinesthetic, musical, linguistic, logical-mathematical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. His theory is often argued, but if it were more largely accepted the world would be more welcoming and smarter.
For anyone who remembers the original Star Wars, here is a funny little Hindsight picture. This stormtrooper has been extremely depressed since his mistake over 35 years ago…
There are two methods for reasoning one is Inductive, as seen in the example above the other method is Deductive. Inductive is an analogical reasoning, using examples to prove something true. The example above is a humorous exaggeration of how Inductive reasoning is used by stating that because he exist, therefore he is human. Then looks at the sharpener as something existing to categorize it as human as well. In Inductive reasoning the theories may be right, or wrong, but are debated using examples.
An analogy can introduce a key term or concepts, and are used to explain relevance in court cases. This is why lawyers reason by using analogies because jurors start learning unfamiliar facts and connect them to facts. Analogies also draw on concepts, or emotions we all experience. Once new information is gained one can move through unfamiliar information and gain comprehension in these analogies. It also a common form of argument in law, and they are two objects similar by their number of attributes. The picture above list the reason why lawyers are skilled in using analogies, and why lawyers reason by using analogies.
The above picture shows us how we use Mental Imagery to remember how certain things look, smell, or taste. It uses visual questions to help us remember how we visual thing in our minds, and create mental pictures of things. Mental Imagery helps us create associations with things such as a certain sound make us visual a fire truck from afar. Or if we were blindfolded and put to taste something it would automatically make us create a mental picture of the food we are tasting.